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Roger Weller, geology instructor
by Eder-Lyn Dayrit
The Dragon Jar or The Dragon Crock?
or “seismic events” – are now detected via seismograph; the defining features of
a seismograph include the having the capabilities to measure and record the
vibrations of quakes (“Seismograph”). However, before we managed to
venture towards the invention of seismographs, seismoscopes were the devices
used to determine the earth’s vibrations. Seismoscopes are now seen as
obsolete instruments that just simply indicate the occurrences of an earthquake
Eastern Han Dynasty earthquakes were disastrous and plentiful, at this time they
were known to have the strength to divert the courses of rivers. The tremors of
the earth were thought to be caused by angry gods punishing those on earth.
When in reality earthquakes are caused by faulting (a sudden vertical or lateral
movement of rock along a surface. The thought that the cause might just be a
natural disaster was simply.. unnatural. But considerable amounts of time
and many tedious experiments sparked a thought to come to mind (to the mind of
Zhang Heng specifically).
unprecedented invention created SEISMIC history in China. As the inventor
of a rotating celestial globe, odometer, and one of the four great painters of
his era, Zhang Heng created the primitive 6-foot (in diameter) apparatus named
“The Houfang Didong Yi” – translating to "instrument for measuring the seasonal
winds and the movements of the Earth"—in 132 A.D. (Chinandaily.com.cn).
Figure SEQ Figure \* ARABIC 1 Sismomètre
his invention (the urn-like dragon jar) was able to determine the exact cardinal
direction of a distant (hundreds of miles) earthquake. The jar contained a
pendulum connected to eight copper rods, which connected to eight bronze dragon
heads. These dragon heads each faced a distinct direction – north, south, east,
west, north east, southeast, northwest, or southwest – and held bronze balls in
their mouths. They surrounded the outside of the jar at equal distance to one
another, and if a seismic event occurred, it could be determined in which
direction the epicenter (the exact location on the Earth's surface that is
directly overhead the origin of an earthquake) was located. This is because a
pendulum located inside the jar would lose it balance and sway, activating
levers inside to eject a single bronze ball and have it fall into a toad’s open
mouth. The noisy plummet would alert of the seismic occurrence. Resulting in a
dragon now empty-handed – or rather, empty mouthed – facing in the direction of
the earthquake’s epicenter.
Figure SEQ Figure \* ARABIC 2 Chang Heng's Seismoscope
instrument’s reliability raised some eyebrows considering in February of 138 A.D
it was reported to have detected an earthquake to the northwest – which pointed
to the capital. No vibration was felt at the location, the lack of earth shaking
caused heads to shake. This was until a messenger arrived to report an event
about three-hundred miles northwest Luoyang so vicious it was causation for
severe landslides. This proved the device was sensitive enough to record the
been many skeptics in regards to this primitive seismometer. Since the
seismograph works on principles of inertia, foreign seismologists argued two
spheres should fall from the mouths of dragons on opposite sides of the jar
(Xinhua News Agency). Global Times has quoted scientist Fang Zhouzi to have
said, “I have every reason to believe that is was a story fabricated to make the
device sound magical.” (Global Times).
rebuttal to doubts, others hold that all the replicas are just reconstructed
from guesses and imagination rather than from actual knowledge as to how the
real device used to look like (Hui). Since the original device is lost, it is
hard to determine which side is right, and which side is mistaken.
A few Western
scholars even contend Zhang Heng's device was lost because it was never a
reality (Xinhua News Agency). Nevertheless, whether the accuracy of this
vision was dream-like, or just a dream, in history it will always be the first.
the original dragon jar did not survive in history, it has been reconstructed.
A Japanese scholar in 1875 reconstructed the seismoscope, basing his design on
the description of the device in Zhangs’s biography. And later in 1951, a
Chinese museum researcher named Wang -Zhenduo redesigned the device, creating
two different models. The first reconstruction contained a pendulum as the
central pillar acting as the sensor, the second contained an inverted pendulum.
A normal pendulum is stable when hanging downwards. While an inverted pendulum
is unstable, and must constantly be balanced to stay upright.
None of the
recreations could detect any tremors, proving they were not up to par with the
accurateness and sensitivity of the original as described in Chinese history
records. Some argued Zhang’s central pillar was a suspended pendulum, others
proposed the pillar an inverted model.
Then on June 13, 2005 modern day seismologists and archeologists announced they
have successfully created a replica of Houfang Didong Yi in Zhengzhou, which is
also the home of the original seismometer inventor. According to
scientists and the designers, the recreation responded to four actual
earthquakes in Tangshan, Yunnan (Xinhua News Agency).
To this day Zhang Heng is celebrated for his works. People still highly esteem the inventor as a great scientist living more than 1,800 years ago. Commemorative activities are held to show respect for him. Even a ring of hills on the moon was named after him (Zhang Heng and The Seismograph). He will forever live in our history as a renowned inventor, politician, writer, mathematician, philosopher, and astronomer (to make the list short). To be brief, he was a man before his time; and he will live long after.
Chen-To, Wang. Cheng Heng’s Seismoscope. 2009. Photograph. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America.
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