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Roger Weller, geology instructor                             

wellerr@cochise.edu

Rubies
Michelle Cruz
Physical Geology
Fall 2005

                                                                    Rubies
 

 

 

 

 

           








 

Credit photo to Aboutgems: 

http://www.aboutgems.org/Ruby.php


 
     For many generations rubies have been and still are considered, “The Kind of Gemstone.”  Rubies are considered to represent many meanings, such as; love, power and passion.  Different cultures have a variety of beliefs and mystical majesty for the ruby.  For example, some ancient cultures thought it had medicinal powers or it brought peace and prosperity (topazery).
 

            The ruby is one of the rarest, hardest and deservedly the most costly gemstone and is number 9 in the Mohs scale of hardness.  Ruby crystallizes in six-sided crystals as a rule and while it has not prominent cleavage.  It is a sister to the sapphire gemstone and belongs in the Corundum family.  Corundum is an aluminum oxide.  The difference between a ruby and sapphire is their color.  Ruby comes only in the color red and sapphire comes in many different colors.  Ruby is also considered the American birthstone for July birthdays.

 

Below is a list of Ancient Birthstones from Ancient Cultures where these cultures have different beliefs on what birthstone should be for their months:

 

Ancient Birthstones

Birthstones from Ancient Cultures

Month

Arabic Birthstones

Hebrew Birthstones

Hindu Birthstones

Italian Birthstones

Polish Birthstones

Roman Birthstones

Russian Birthstones

January

Garnet

Garnet

Serpent stone *

Jacinth
Garnet

Garnet

Garnet

Garnet
Hyacinth

February

Amethyst

Amethyst

Chandrakanta *

Amethyst

Amethyst

Amethyst

Amethyst

March

Bloodstone

(Bloodstone)
Jasper

The gold Siva-linga *

Jasper

Bloodstone

Bloodstone

Jasper

April

Sapphire

Sapphire

Diamond

Sapphire

Diamond

Sapphire

Sapphire

May

Emerald

Agate Carnelian

Chalcedony

Emerald

Agate

Emerald

Agate

Emerald

June

Agate
Chalcedony
Pearl

Emerald

Pearl

Emerald

Agate
Chalcedony

Emerald

Agate

Chalcedony

July

Carnelian

Onyx

Sapphire

Onyx

Ruby

Onyx

Ruby

Sardonyx

August

Sardonyx

Carnelian

Ruby

Carnelian

Sardonyx

Carnelian

Alexandrite

September

Chrysolite

Chrysolite

Zircon

Chrysolite

Sardonyx

Sardonyx

Chrysolite

October

Aquamarine

Aquamarine

Coral

Beryl

Aquamarine

Aquamarine

Beryl

November

Topaz

Topaz

Cat's-eye

Topaz

Topaz

Topaz

Topaz

December

Ruby

Ruby

Topaz

Ruby

Turquoise

Ruby

Turquoise
Chrysoprase


http://www.bernardine.com/birthstone/ancient.htm









 

 

 

            Star rubies are considered the more valuable rubies that have needle like inclusions.  The most valued color is pure red with a hint of blue (jewelry television).

 

The most remarkable and famous rubies found in world are in Mogok in Upper Burma, nowadays called Myanmar that lies between India and China.  Rubies can also be found in Thailand, Vietnam, Sri Lanka, India, Pakistan, Kenya, Tanzania, and Madagascar (gemstone.de).

 

 

            The most expensive 15.97 carat ruby every sold was at an auction in 1988, that sold for $3.63 million dollars.  The cut of a ruby and its color is very important.  A good cut will make the ruby glow with a deep fire (jewelry-paideia).

 

Credit photo to Simply Sapphires: 

http://www.simplysapphires.com

            “In fact, rubies are today still more valuable and rare than even the top quality colorless diamonds. The record price for a ruby sold at auction is a 16 carat ruby which sold for US$227,301 per carat at Sotheby's in 1988. A 27.37 carat Burmese ruby ring sold for US$4 million at Sotheby's in Geneva in May 1995, or $146,145 per carat. A 32 carat ruby sold for US$144,000 per carat at Sotheby's in 1989. In contrast, eight D-color internally flawless diamonds over 50 carats have been sold in the past six years and the largest, a pear-shape of 102 carats, fetched a mere US$125,000 per carat. Top rubies are so rare even the world's top gem dealers must incessantly comb estate sales and auctions to find them. Sizes above five carats are particularly rare (3dchem).”         









 

 

(Synthetic Ruby) Credit photo to R.Weller/Cochise College      

Synthetic (lab created/grown) rubies are rubies that are laboratory made and are much less expensive to buy than real authentic rubies.  It is hard to identify between a fake ruby and an authentic ruby.  If you feel that the ruby you are buying is not authentic, then you can have the gemstone certified by a gemologist.   

Rubies are heated to improve their clarity and color.  A pure red ruby is very rare and would be very expensive to buy.  When buying a ruby, look at the cut, clarity, color and the carat it weighs.  The cut should not be too shallow or too deep because the light will not be refracted efficiently.  The ruby should have clarity that is clear without too many inclusions or flaws.  Rubies can be cleaned with soapy water or a commercial solvent and brush. Mechanical cleaners are safe, except for heavily included gems or treated gems.  Always store your ruby rings and jewelry in a fabric-lined box to keep it safe from other pieces of jewelry. Never wear your jewelry when doing rough work or working with harsh chemicals.  With these tips, your beautiful ruby earrings and jewelry should last you for many years (gemstones).





 

 

 




Credit Photo to Topazery:  http://www.topazery.com/gemston-history.htm 

WORKS CITED

 

About Ruby.  “Jewelry Television.”  Retrieved November 2005.  <http://www.jewelrytelevision.com/about_Ruby>.

Ancient Birthstone Information.  “Bernadine Fine Art Jewelry.”  Retrieved November 2005.  <http://www.bernardine.com/birthsone/ancient.htm>.

Gemstone.  Retrieved November 2005.  <http://www.gemstone.de/curiosities/Ruby.html>.

Harrison, Karl.  “Ruby Corundum, Gemstones.”  Retrieved November 2005.  <http://www.3dchem.com/molecules.asp?ID=78>

History of Sapphires, Emeralds, and Rubies.  “Antique Jewelry of Topazery.” Retrieved November 2005. <http://www.topazery.com/gemstone-history.htm>.

Matsen, Sher.  “The History of Rubies.”  Retrieved November 2005.  < http://www.jewelry-paideia.com/reference/ref-gemstone-ruby-1.php>.

Ruby.  “About Gems.”  Retrieved November 2005.  <http://www.aboutgems.org/Ruby.php.>

Ruby Rings, Ruby Earrings, Sapphire Rings, Ruby Jewelry, Precious and Semi Precious Gemstones.  “GoldenMine.”   Retrieved November 2005.  <http://www.gemstones.goldenmine.com/ruby.htm.>

Star Sapphire Burma Ruby Star Oval-8.72 cts.-EGL Certified star ruby red ruby burma ruby.  “Simply Sapphires.” <http://www.simplysapphires.com/cgi-bin/hazel.cgi?action=serve&item=rubystar872.htm.>l

Weller, Roger.  “Cochise College.”  Retrieved November 2005.  <http://www.skywalker.cochise.edu/weller/mingin/gemtp/ruby/ruby05.htm.>