Cochise College-
  Physicsweb
Physics Educational Resources 
Roger Weller, geology instructor
wellerr@cochise.edu
copyright 2009-R.Weller 

                                            Basic Astronomy Data-1
                             Mass and Size
mass
          Earth-                           5.9736 x 1024 kg
          Sun-                              1.9891 x 1030 kg
          Milky Way Galaxy-    3.6 x 1041 kg (visible)
                                                 1.2 x 1042 kg (including dark energy)
                                                 5.8 x 1011 solar masses
          Universe-                     3 x 1052 kg (visible)
                                                 60 x 1052 kg (including dark energy)


radius
          
Earth                           6.3781 x 106 m
           Earth's orbit              1.5 x 1011 m
           Sun                              6.955 x 108 m
           Milky Way Galaxy     9.5 x 1020 m  (100,000 light years)
           Universe                     1.29 x 1026 m
   (13.73 billion light years) (8.68 x 1014 AU)

speed
          rotational speed along Earth's equator:  464 m/sec  or 1670 km/hr
          speed of Earth in its orbit about the sun:  29.783 km/sec
          rotational speed of Milky Way galaxy:  250 to 300 km/sec
          orbital period of Solar system in Milky Way galaxy:  230 million years

          relative speed of local group of galaxies:  552 km/sec 

useful values

         
 gravitational constant  (G)- 6.673 x 10-11 m3/kg.s2
           speed of light in a vacuum (c)- 2.99792458 x 108 m/s
           1 year in seconds (365.25 days)- 3.15576 x 107 seconds
           1 light year- 9.460730 x 1015 m  (6.32411 x 104 AU)
           1 astronomical unit  (AU)- 1.49597871 x 1011 m

size and distance
            sun's distance to the galactic center:  26,000  +/- 1,400 light years
            plane of the Milky Way is inclined 600 to the ecliptic