-is a form of
radioactivity, consisting of a Helium-4 nucleus being emitted from the
of a radioactive isotope.
-alpha decay-Opal's Pals
-is the smallest part
of an element that retains the characteristics of that element.
It consists of a small, dense nucleus made up of protons and neutrons surrounded by electrons
orbiting the nucleus at a distance.
atomic mass number
-For a particular
isotope it is the number of protons plus neutrons within the atomic nucleus.
-atomic mass number-Opal's Pals
-is a small, dense
structure in the center of an atom containing protons and neutrons.
-is determined by the
number of protons within an atomic nucleus.
-atomic number-Opal's Pals
-is a value
representing the weight of one atom of an element compared to the weight of
atom of oxygen 16.
beta particle or beta ray
-is a form of
radioactivity consisting of the emission of a high speed electron from an
-consists of chemical elements combined together in a fixed ratio.
-is the identification
of a mineral through the use of chemicals.
For example, hydrochloric acid applied to the mineral
calcite produces bubbles of carbon dioxide.
-is a type of bonding
in chemicals where electron pairs are shared between adjacent atoms.
-is a measurement of
the mass of an object compared to its volume; often expressed in terms of
grams per cubic centimeter.
-is responsible for the attraction between electrons and protons
-is a negatively
charged subatomic particle that is usually found in an orbit about an atomic
-is a pure material in
which all of the atoms have the same number of protons in each atomic
nucleus. Only 92 different varieties occur naturally on the Earth.
-is a push or a pull. There are only 4 forces that hold the Universe together
force-binds neutrons and protons together
weak nuclear force-holds a neutron together
electromagnetic force-holds atoms together
gravity-holds planets, stars, and galaxies together
-is a high energy x ray.
-is an atom or group
of atoms with excess electrical charge, not electrically neutral.
-is a chemical bond
that holds a material together by the electrostatic attraction of the ions
compose the material.
-is a variety of a
chemical element, identified by the number of protons plus neutrons in the
-is an electrically
neutral sub-atomic particle of the approximately the same mass as a proton
and found in the atomic nucleus. Its primary function is to bind the electrically repulsive protons
together in the atomic nucleus.
-is the process where a large atomic nucleus breaks into smaller atomic nuclei.
-occurs when two small
atomic nuclei are fused together to produce a larger atomic nucleus.
As long as the atomic nuclei are small the fusion process releases large quantities of energy.
-nuclear fusion-Opal's Pals
-is a positive
charged, heavy subatomic particle found in the atomic nucleus.
-are the damaging
effects of radioactivity on biological matter which includes mutations, cell
rupture, cancer, and death.
radioactive half life
-is the amount of time it takes for half of the atoms of a specific radioactive isotope to decay.
-is the spontaneous decay of an atomic nucleus.
-is the element number
14; semi-metallic. It does not occur naturally in its pure form on the
of the Earth.
-is a lemon yellow, transparent to translucent element that burns in an oxygen atmosphere.
-is where light just
outside of the normal visible spectrum, just past violet.
This light with a shorter wavelength than violet light is responsible for sunburn on bright, sunny